October 3, 2022


The founder of zero-knowledge (ZK) technology company StarkWare, Eli Ben-Sasson, says that the new Recursive Proofs of Validity could theoretically collect up to 60 million transactions in one on the Ethereum blockchain.

The co-inventor of zkSTARK made the comments to Cointelegraph during ETH Seoul on August 7, after announcing the start of production of StarkWare’s new Recursive validity proof technology during a presentation.

Speaking to Cointelegraph, Ben-Sasson said that retroactive proofs of validity could further increase transaction efficiency by a factor of at least ten compared to the standard Validium scale, noting that they have already amassed 600,000 non-fungible token (NFTs) mints in ImmutableX protocol.

“I would say the minimum I would say is 10x […] We have placed 600,000 NFT mints resulting in 10 gas per mint. We can now take at least 10 such proofs and create a recursive proof for all 10 of those things,” he explained.

“We could go to at least six million, and that’s in the short term. This is something that would be very easy to do. “

However, Ben-Sasson also added that the number could “reach 60 million with more engineering and adjustments”, adding:

“I think also reducing latency by another factor of 5 to 10x is also very doable.”

StarkNet is a permissionless and decentralized layer-2 ZK pool that uses Validium to scale transactions. Like standard ZK-Rollups, Validiums work by aggregating thousands of transactions into a single transaction. StarkNet’s new recursive proof of validity technology can aggregate multiple Validium blocks into a single proof.

This scaling solution could be a game changer for Ethereum, as layer 2 scaling solutions such as ZK-Rollups and StarkNet’s recursive proofs of validity can offload much of the network congestion and data availability issues that have cause problems on the Ethereum Mainnet. Currently, the Ethereum Mainnet can process transactions at a rate of 12-15 transactions per second (TPS).

During his presentation at ETH Seoul, Ben-Sasson noted that lookback is great for scaling as it lowers gas costs, has greater proof capacity and offers lower latency.

StarkNet has been live on the Ethereum Mainnet since June 2020. It currently powers protocols such as dYdX, Immutable, DeversiFi and Celer.

Related: Blockchain’s Scaling Problem, Explained

Also speaking at ETH Seoul on Sunday, the founder of Ethereum Vitalik Buterin expressed his enthusiasm for ZK-rollups, further stating that the scaling solution was superior to Optimistic Rollups:

“In the long run, ZK-Rollups will ultimately beat Optimistic Rollups because they have these fundamental advantages, like not having to have a seven-day withdrawal period.”

To date, Ethereum-based scaling solutions with the highest total value locked (TVL) are Arbitrum, Optimism, dYdX and Loopring.